Asia-Tropical: New Guinea present; Philippines (Philippines present), Perak present, W Malay Peninsula present, in the Pacific eastwards to Tahiti present, tropical mainland Asia present
Widely in tropical mainland Asia; Malesia: W Malay Peninsula (in Perak only), Philippines, New Guinea; in the Pacific eastwards to Tahiti.
Young plants collected by M. G. Price in Luzon have unlobed linear fronds to about 30 cm long; such fronds may be ferule, the smallest fertile ones seen 9 cm long.
In the Philippines and in New Guinea are intermediates between this species and T. repanda; they have narrow fertile pinnae decurrent to a narrow wing on the rachis and a short stipe-wing.
T. G. Walker found that three plants in New Guinea were diploids; Manton found tetra- ploids in Sri Lanka. Structural differences between diploid and tetraploid have not been established.
Bedd., Ferns S India. 1863: pl. 82
Holttum, Revis. Fl. Malaya, ed. 2. 1963: 635
Sledge - in Kew Bull. 1972: 420
Racib., Pteridop. Buitenzorg. 1898: 196
Molesworth Allen - in Gard. Bull. Sing. 1967: with photo
Ching - in Sinensia. 1931: 22
Bedd., Handb. Ferns Brit. India. 1883: 219
Copel., Fern Fl. Philipp. 1960: 315
Backer & Posth., Varenfl. Java. 1939: 73
Holttum - in Novit. Bot. Delect. Seminum Horti Bot. Univ. Carol. Prag. 1969: 9
Mett. - in Farngatt. 1858: 120
Alderw., Malayan Ferns. 1908: 247
Holttum - in Gard. Bull. Sing. 1981: 139