Primary tabs



Sparingly branched shrubs or small trees, or climbing, rarely (extra-Mal.) herbaceous, glabrous or hairy, often prickly. Leaves pinnate to tripinnate, usually with leaflets at the insertion of the lateral pinnae; Inflorescence a terminal panicle; Fruit a fleshy drupe;


Asia-Tropical: Borneo present; Jawa (Jawa present); Malaya (Peninsular Malaysia present); Philippines (Philippines present); Sulawesi (Sulawesi present); Sumatera (Sumatera present), East Asia present, Lesser Sunda Is present, North America present, Northern America, Sumba present, West New Guinea present
More than 30 spp. in North America (S. to Mexico) and East Asia, 6 spp. in Malesia: Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Java, Lesser Sunda Is. (Sumba), Borneo, Celebes, Philippines, and West New Guinea.


For a discussion of specific distinctions see van Steenis, l.c. 391. , treated some species that extend into Malesia. Merrill considered that the climbing habit and recurved spines of Acanthophora justified its separation as a distinct genus, but more recent authors have not agreed.


Stone 1977 – In: Gard. Bull. Sing. p 134
Boerl. 1890 – In: Handl. p 629
Miq. 1863 – In: Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. p 6
Harms 1894 – In: E. & P., Nat. Pfl. Fam. 3. p 56
Hutch. 1967 – In: Gen. Fl. Pl. p 63
Bth. 1865 – In: B. & H., Gen. Pl. 1. p 936
Philipson 1977 – In: Gard. Bull. Sing. p 97
Linne 1753: Sp. Pl. p 273
Steen. 1948 – In: Bull. Bot. Gard. Btzg. p 391
Steen. 1948 – In: Bull. Bot. Gard. Btzg. p 390
DC. 1830 – In: Prod. p 257