Hernandiaceae

Primary tabs

Hernandiaceae

<<Flowers>Ovary>Ovules

ovule 1, anatropous, pendulous,1
1. 004-004-001

<<Flowers>Ovary>Style

style 1, simple, with a groove decurrent along entire length.2
2. 004-004-002

<<Flowers>Stamens>Anthers

anthers basifixed, 2-locular, introrse, dehiscing by valves opening to the top or to the side,3
3. 004-002-001

<<Flowers>Stamens>Connective

connective linear,4
4. 004-002-002

<<Flowers>Stamens>Pollen

pollen grains inaperturate, spinulose;5
5. 004-002-003

<<Fruits>Seeds>Cotyledons

cotyledons 2, large, with apical radicle.6
6. 005-001-002

<<Fruits>Seeds>Endosperm

endosperm absent,7
7. 005-001-001

<Flowers>Interstaminal glands

interstaminal glands very small or absent;8
8. 004-003

<Flowers>Ovary

ovary present or rudimentary, unilocular,9
9. 004-004

<Flowers>Perianth segments

perianth segments 3-10, in 1 or 2 whorls, quincuncial, (sub-)imbricate or valvate;10
10. 004-001

<Flowers>Stamens

stamens 1-7, in 1 whorl, alternating with (inner) whorl of perianth segments, usually free, in Hernandia with 2 somewhat connate, swollen glands on back,11
11. 004-002

<Fruits>Seeds

seed 1,12
12. 005-001

<Inflorescences>Bracts and bracteoles

bracts and bracteoles present or absent.13
13. 003-002

<Inflorescences>Position

axillary, pseudo-terminal, rarely terminal panicles14
14. 003-001

<Leaves>Blade

blade simple or up to 3-5-lobed or divided into 3-5 leaflets;15
15. 002-001

<Leaves>Secretory structures

oil cells, sometimes cystoliths and glandular hairs present.16
16. 002-003

<Leaves>Veins

veination prominent, pinnate, palmate or camptodromous;17
17. 002-002

Description

Trees, (climbing) shrubs or lianas. Leaves not stipulate, petiolate, often peltate, alternate; blade simple or up to 3-5-lobed or divided into 3-5 leaflets; veination prominent, pinnate, palmate or camptodromous; oil cells, sometimes cystoliths and glandular hairs present. Inflorescences axillary, pseudo-terminal, rarely terminal panicles, usually much branched, terminal-flower generally absent, flowers in cincinni or dichasia; bracts and bracteoles present or absent. Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or by abortion unisexual (then plants monoecious, very rarely dioecious), regular, epigynous; perianth segments 3-10, in 1 or 2 whorls, quincuncial, (sub-)imbricate or valvate; stamens 1-7, in 1 whorl, alternating with (inner) whorl of perianth segments, usually free, in Hernandia with 2 somewhat connate, swollen glands on back, anthers basifixed, 2-locular, introrse, dehiscing by valves opening to the top or to the side, connective linear, pollen grains inaperturate, spinulose; interstaminal glands very small or absent; ovary present or rudimentary, unilocular, ovule 1, anatropous, pendulous, style 1, simple, with a groove decurrent along entire length. Fruits dry, indehiscent drupes, ovoid or ellipsoid, rarely globose, longitudinally ribbed, in Hernandia included in cupule; seed 1, endosperm absent, cotyledons 2, large, with apical radicle.

Distribution

Guianas present, Neotropics present, Pantropical present
Pantropical, most frequent in coastal regions, 4 genera and 62 species; in the Neotropics 3 genera with 24 species: Gyrocarpus (2 species), Hernandia (7 species) and Sparattanthelium (15 species); in the Guianas 4 species in 2 genera; Hernandia (1 species) and Sparattanthelium (3 species).

FAMILY DESCRIPTION



Growth rings present and rather distinct, boundaries indicated by a few rows of flattened fibres and by an almost continuous ring of aliform/confluent parenchyma.
Vessels diffuse, for 50-80% solitary, the remainder in radial pairs occasionally in clusters or in longer chains, scarce, average number in Hernandia 1.5 per mm², in Sparattanthelium 5 per mm². Perforations simple. Intervessel pits alternate, 10-14 μm wide, the apertures included. Vessel member length in Hernandia 580 μm, in Sparattanthelium 370 μm. Vessel-ray pits very large, oval to irregularly shaped, in Sparattanthelium more or less in scalariform arrangement, in Hernandia also partly similar to the intervessel pitting.
Rays 1-4-seriate, uniseriates rather scarce; 3-4 per mm; almost homocellular, marginal cells of the same height as procumbent cells, but radially slightly shorter; width 20-50 μm, height up to 600 μm (18 cells) in Hernandia, up to 235 μm (30 cells) in Sparattanthelium.
Parenchyma rather abundant, mainly paratracheal, vasicentric to aliform and aliform-confluent, also apotracheal diffuse and diffuse-in-aggregates; strands of 2-4 cells. Large cystoliths in inflated cells in Sparattanthelium p.p.
Fibres non-septate, thin-walled with a wide lumen, diam. 20-25 μm. Pits simple, minute, in radial walls. Average length of fibres in Hernandia 486 μm, in Sparattanthelium 860 μm.

Flowers

Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or by abortion unisexual (then plants monoecious, very rarely dioecious), regular, epigynous;18
18. 004

Fruits

Fruits dry, indehiscent drupes, ovoid or ellipsoid, rarely globose, longitudinally ribbed, in Hernandia included in cupule;19
19. 005

Habit

Trees, (climbing) shrubs or lianas.20
20. 001

Individuals Association

Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. 11781 Suriname, Collector indigenus surinamensis 164 Guyana, Gillespie, L.J. & H. Persaud 1202 Mori, S.A. et al. 23571 Prévost, M.F. 1512 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 1395 Guyana, Clarke, D. et al. 6178 Oldeman, R.A.A B-1029 Mélinon, M. s.n. Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J. et al. 3180 Suriname, BW 6559 Cremers, G. 7020 Guyana, Sandwith, N.Y. 470 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de la 3093 Suriname, BBS 112 Granville J.J. de 6900 Béna, P., in BAFOG 47N Mori, S.A. et al. 23044 Guyana, Snow, D.W. 14 Oldeman, R.A.A B-3890 Cremers, G. 9581 Suriname, Stahel, G. & J.W. Gonggrijp, in BW 802 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J. et al. 3557 Grenand, P. 2101 Guyana, Forest Dept. British Guiana (FD) 5586 Guyana, Forest Dept. British Guiana (FD) 3355 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J. et al. 4488 Guyana, Maas, P.J.M. et al. 5562 Mori, S.A. et al. 18986 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J. et al. 7437 Guyana, Polak, M. et al. 72 Granville J.J. de 2811 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 1547 Suriname, BW 802 Guyana, Andel, T. van et al. 2646 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. & A.R.A. Görts-van Rijn et al. 363 Aublet, J.B.C.F. s.n. Sagot, P. 1218 Guyana, Anderson, C.W. 12 Prévost, M.F. 3438 Kubitzki, K. 71-116 Prévost, M.F. 4096 Guyana, Hitchcock, A.S. 17622 Guyana, Hoffman, B. et al. 2764 Feuillet, C. 239 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 4889 Suriname, Maguire, B. 24127 Hallé, F. 4019 Guyana, Smith, A.C. 3390 Riera, B. 792 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. & A.R.A. Görts-van Rijn et al. 57 Guyana, Forest Dept. British Guiana (FD) 3938 Jacquemin, H. 2790 Suriname, BW 3120 Guyana, Tutin, T.G. 252 Prévost, M.F. 3500 Suriname, Mennega, A.M.W. 463 Prévost, M.F. 4085

Inflorescences

Inflorescences , usually much branched, terminal-flower generally absent, flowers in cincinni or dichasia;21
21. 003

Leaves

Leaves not stipulate, petiolate, often peltate, alternate;22
22. 002

Taxonomic changes

The following taxon are newly placed in synonymy:
  • Sparattanthelium botocudorum Mart. var. uncigerum Meisn. to Sparattanthelium wonotoboense Kosterm.
  • Sparattanthelium uncigerum (Meisn.) Kubitzki to S. wonotoboense Kosterm.

Wood

The wood of the two genera indigenous in the Guianas, Hernandia and Sparattanthelium, is very much alike, as well in general aspects as in structure. The bark is thin and superficially longitudinally grooved; the beige wood is rather coarse, particularly in Hernandia, and light. Special features are absent.
The wood is of no commercial value.
A. Carlquist, S.: A theory of paedomorphosis in dicotyledonous woods. – Phytomorphology 12, B. Dadswell, H.E. & S.J. Record. 1936: Identification of woods with conspicuous rays. – Trop Woods 48, C. Dechamps, R. 1985: Etude anatomique de bois d’ Amérique du Sud. III. Linaceae-Quiinaceae. – Ann. Mus. roy. Afr. Cent. Tervuren No 14, D. Détienne, P. & P. Jacquet. 1983 – In: Atlas d’identification des bois de l’Amazonie et des régions voisines. – Nogent sur Marne: C.T.F.T., E. Ilic, J. 1991 – In: CSIRO atlas of hardwoods. – Berlin, etc.: Springer-Verlag, F. Kribs, D.A. 1968 – In: Commercial Foreign Woods on the American Market. – New York: Dover Publ., G. Lindeman, J.C., A.M.W. Mennega & W.H.A. Hekking. 1963 – In: Bomenboek voor Suriname. – Paramaribo: Dienst ’s Lands Bosbeheer, H. Metcalfe, C.R. & L. Chalk. 1950: – Anatomy of the Dicotyledons Volume 2, I. Metcalfe, C.R. 1987: – Anatomy of the Dicotyledons vol. 3, J. Record, S.J. & R.W. Hess. 1943 – In: Timbers of the New World. – New Haven: Yale school of Forestry, K. Shutts, C.F. 1960: Wood anatomy of Hernandiaceae and Gyrocarpaceae. – Trop. Woods 113, L. Welle, B.J.H. ter, 1980: Cystoliths in the secondary xylem of Sparattanthelium (Hernandiaceae). – IAWA Bull. n.s. Vol. I, M. Williams, L. 1936: Woods of Northeastern Peru. – Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 15