Icacinaceae

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Icacinaceae

<<<<Flowers>Ovary>Stigma>Shape>Lobe number

3-lobed1
1. 004-004-005-001-001

<<<Flowers>Ovary>Ovules>Ovule number

22
2. 004-004-003-001

<<<Flowers>Ovary>Ovules>Position

pendulous, anatropous, mostly collateral3
3. 004-004-003-002

<<<Flowers>Ovary>Stigma>Shape

capitate or rarely4
4. 004-004-005-001

<<<Flowers>Ovary>Style>Style number

15
5. 004-004-004-001

<<<Flowers>Stamens>Anthers>Cell number

mostly 4-celled, rarely 2-celled6
6. 004-003-003-001

<<<Flowers>Stamens>Anthers>Dehiscence

longitudinally dehiscent, dehistence introrse or lateral7
7. 004-003-003-002

<<<Flowers>Stamens>Filaments>Texture

often fleshy8
8. 004-003-002-001

<<Flowers>Calyx>Dehiscence

often persistent9
9. 004-001-003

<<Flowers>Calyx>Lobes

with imbricate or open lobes10
10. 004-001-002

<<Flowers>Calyx>Texture

fleshy11
11. 004-001-001

<<Flowers>Ovary>Cell number

1-celled or rarely 2-3-celled12
12. 004-004-001

<<Flowers>Ovary>Disk

sometimes with disk or disk-like base13
13. 004-004-002

<<Flowers>Ovary>Ovules

with ovules14
14. 004-004-003

<<Flowers>Ovary>Stigma

stigma .15
15. 004-004-005

<<Flowers>Ovary>Style

style ,16
16. 004-004-004

<<Flowers>Petals>Apex

apex often inflexed;17
17. 004-002-004

<<Flowers>Petals>Petal number

5, rarely 4-618
18. 004-002-001

<<Flowers>Petals>Shape

free or sometimes united, valvate19
19. 004-002-002

<<Flowers>Petals>Texture

usually fleshy20
20. 004-002-003

<<Flowers>Stamens>Anthers

anthers , basi- or dorsifixed, ;21
21. 004-003-003

<<Flowers>Stamens>Filaments

filaments ,22
22. 004-003-002

<<Flowers>Stamens>Stamen number

5, rarely 423
23. 004-003-001

<<Fruits>Seeds>Embryo

embryo small or large,24
24. 005-002-002

<<Fruits>Seeds>Endosperm

endosperm copious.25
25. 005-002-003

<<Fruits>Seeds>Seed number

126
26. 005-002-001

<Flowers>Calyx

calyx , , ;27
27. 004-001

<Flowers>Ovary

ovary , , ,28
28. 004-004

<Flowers>Petals

petals , , ,29
29. 004-002

<Flowers>Stamens

stamens , alternating with petals,30
30. 004-003

<Fruits>Cell number

1-celled, rarely 2-3-celled31
31. 005-001

<Fruits>Seeds

seed ,32
32. 005-002

<Inflorescences>Arrangement

cymose or paniculate with cymose branches33
33. 003-001

<Inflorescences>Pedicels

pedicels mostly articulate below calyx.34
34. 003-003

<Inflorescences>Position

terminal, axillary or supra-axillary35
35. 003-002

<Leaves>Margin type

entire or rarely sinuate-dentate36
36. 002-001

Description

Trees, shrubs or lianas. Leaves alternate, simple, entire or rarely sinuate-dentate, pinnately veined, petiolate, exstipulate. Inflorescences cymose or paniculate with cymose branches, terminal, axillary or supra-axillary, bracteate; pedicels mostly articulate below calyx. Flowers small, perfect or sometimes polygamous or unisexual, hypogynous; calyx fleshy, with imbricate or open lobes, often persistent; petals 5, rarely 4-6, free or sometimes united, valvate, usually fleshy, apex often inflexed; stamens 5, rarely 4, alternating with petals, filaments often fleshy, anthers mostly 4-celled, rarely 2-celled, basi- or dorsifixed, longitudinally dehiscent, dehistence introrse or lateral; ovary 1-celled or rarely 2-3-celled, sometimes with disk or disk-like base, with 2pendulous, anatropous, mostly collateral ovules, style 1, stigma capitate or rarely 3-lobed. Fruit drupaceous, 1-celled, rarely 2-3-celled; seed 1, embryo small or large, endosperm copious.

Distribution

Guianas present, Neotropics present, tropics and subtropics present
About 60 genera with over 380 species in the tropics and subtropics, about 12 genera with about 70 species in the Neotropics, 7 genera and 12(-15) species in the Guianas.

Flowers

Flowers small, perfect or sometimes polygamous or unisexual, hypogynous;37
37. 004

Fruits

Fruit drupaceous, ;38
38. 005

Habit

Trees, shrubs or lianas.39
39. 001

Individuals Association

Leprieur, F.R. 275 Suriname, Schulz, J.P. 7287 Pires, J.M. 47461 Suriname, LBB 15278 Service Forestier 7153 Guyana, Persaud, A.C. 29 Riera, B. 971 Sastre, C. 5521 Foresta, H. de 335 Suriname, BW 4029 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 3625 Perrottet, G.S. s.n. Suriname, LBB 2708 Suriname, BW 3621 Guyana, Maas, P.J.M. et al. 4364 Boom, B & S.A. Mori 1817 Sabatier, D. et al. 2131 Benoist, R. 1603 Suriname, LBB 1275 Halle, F. 2834 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-675 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-2753 Suriname, Kramer, K.U. & W.H.A. Hekking 3088 Guyana, FD 4998 Sagot, P. 784 Suriname, LBB 11173 Guyana, Maguire, B. & D.B. Fanshawe 23339 Guyana, Maguire, B. & D.B. Fanshawe 32157 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J. (et al.) 9714 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-3816 Prevost, M.F. 1204 Service Forestier 244M Oldeman, R.A.A. B-863 Suriname, LBB 3621 Forget 449 Suriname, BW 1329 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J. (et al.) 7462 Martin, J. s.n. Suriname, LBB 8989 Boom, B & S.A. Mori 1745 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J. (et al.) 10168 Suriname, Heyligers, P.C. 488 Grenand, P. 976 Poiteau, P.A. s.n. Guyana, Sandwith, N.Y. 590 Guyana, Hahn, W. 4789 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-1793 Suriname, BW 4353 Melinon, E. 441 Suriname, BW 3908 Puig, H. 10881 Suriname, Schulz, J.P. 7300 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 3986 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J. (et al.) 8845 Aublet, F. s.n. Service Forestier 298M Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 6280 Guyana, Cowan, R.S. 39241 Aubreville, A. 255 Suriname, Heyde, N.M. 442 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 6386 Suriname, BW 6965 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 4084 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 347 Poncy, O. 278 Oldeman, R.A.A. 1327 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de Ia 3375 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 5948 Sabatier, D. 979 Guyana, Steege, H. ter et al. 400 Suriname, Pulle, A.A. 308 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-1333 Suriname, LBB 13368 Granville, J.J. de (et al.) 761 Service Forestier 287M Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 2193 Suriname, BW 5855 Suriname, Kegel, H. 1236 Suriname, LBB 3883 Mori, S.A. (et al.) 18589 Granville, J.J. de (et al.) 2804 Guyana, Maguire, B. & D.B. Fanshawe 32441 Suriname, LBB 9356 Service Forestier 7468 Suriname, Gonggrijp, J.W. 4244 Grenand, P. 559 Melinon, E. 382 Mori, S.A. (et al.) 15465 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 2062 Suriname, BW 1837 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de Ia 4235 Suriname, BW 5054 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-3465 Granville, J.J. de (et al.) B-5480 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J. et al. 2375 Guyana, Tillett, S.S. & C.L. Tillett 44832 Service Forestier 1294 Richard, L.C. s.n. Granville, J.J. de (et al.) 5389 Suriname, BW 3393 Oldeman, R.A.A. T-299 Suriname, BW 3883 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. 358 Oldeman, R.A.A. 2112 Guyana, Pinkus, A.S. 87 Suriname, BW 2373 Suriname, BW 3528 Prevost, M.F. 1795 Suriname, BW 6045 Suriname, Hostmann, F.W. 1209 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 6568 Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 353 Suriname, BW 1275 Cremers, G.A. 9343 Suriname, BW 3311 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de Ia 3794 Prevost, M.F. & D. Sabatier 2455 Sabatier, D. 264 Leprieur, F.R. s.n. Guyana, Pipoly, J.J. (et al.) 7689 Guyana, Fanshawe, D.B. 2252 Granville, J.J. de (et al.) B-5290 Oldeman, R.A.A. 2477 Suriname, BW 1381 Jacquemin, H. 2023 Melinon, E. s.n. Granville, J.J. de (et al.) 2112 Grenand, P. 1046 Suriname, Schulz, J.P. 7621 Suriname, Stahel, G. & J.W. Gonggrijp 6525 Wachenheim, H. 19 Suriname, LBB 13518 Guyana, Persaud, A.C. 68 Suriname, Schulz, J.P. 7735 Service Forestier 125 M Benoist, R. 1590 Guyana, Tillett, S.S. & C.L. Tillett 45514 Guyana, FD 4167 Benoist, R. 1214 Suriname, BW 6014 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-2806 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-1335 Suriname, Stahel, G. Wilh. Exp. 302 Oldeman, R.A.A. 3243 Suriname, LBB 4170 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J. (et al.) 7717 Suriname, Schulz, J.P. 7177 Jacquemin, H. 1400 Suriname, Stahel, G. Wilh. Exp. 257 Jacquemin, H. 2587 Suriname, BW 4467 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 4789 Sabatier, D. 1247 Suriname, Collector indigenous 245 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 3654 Suriname, Kramer, K.U. & W.H.A. Hekking 2959 Boom, B & S.A. Mori 1617 Granville, J.J. de (et al.) 6131 Service Forestier 7412 Martin, J. s.n. Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 7092 Granville, J.J. de (et al.) 5007 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 4071 Granville, J.J. de (et al.) 6218 Sabatier, D. et al. 2010 Suriname, Pulle, A.A. 89 Billiet, F. & B. Jadin 1191 Granville, J.J. de (et al.) 4806 Guyana, Gillespie, L.J. 2679 Suriname, BW 6396 Cremers, G.A. 5340 Service Forestier 258 M Sabatier, D. et al. 2498 Guyana, Smith, A.C. 2726 Suriname, LBB 5582 Suriname, Stahel, G. Wilh. Exp. 413 Suriname, BW 431 Granville, J.J. de (et al.) 4687 Foresta, H. de 539 Suriname, BW 2742 Suriname, BW 5582 Wachenheim, H. s.n. Suriname, LBB 3393 Granville, J.J. de (et al.) 10159 Guyana, FD 2829 Suriname, Maas, P.J.M. et al. 2338 Guyana, Jansen-Jacobs, M.J. et al. 2431 Richard, L.C. s.n. Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 4219 Sabatier, D. et al. 3630 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 4867 Mori, S.A. (et al.) 8895 Sabatier, D. 2352 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 1050 Granville, J.J. de (et al.) B-4445 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 2417 Forget 459 Prevost, M.F. 2200 Prevost, M.F. & P. Grenand 946 Desvaux, A. N. s.n. Suriname, Schulz, J.P. 7151 Suriname, Schulz, J.P. 7928 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-3379 Suriname, BW 1821 Suriname, LBB 11981 Wachenheim, H. 532 Suriname, BW 1666 Sastre, C. 5844 Service Forestier 7498 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de Ia 4982 Oldeman, R.A.A. 3116 Sabatier, D. 185 Guyana, Me Dowell, T. 2547 Granville, J.J. de (et al.) 454 Suriname, Heyde, N.M. 462 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 3732 Sabatier, D. 84 Foresta, H. de 538 Guyana, Fanshawe, D.B. 625 Moretti, C. 342 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J. (et al.) 8933 Forget 453 Granville, J.J. de (et al.) B-4245 Suriname, Stahel, G. & J.W. Gonggrijp 3534 Guyana, Waby, J.F. 8345 Mori, S.A. (et al.) 15274 Sabatier, D. 202 Mori, S.A. (et al.) 18488 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 2412 Suriname, Schulz, J.P. 8397 Guyana, Gillespie, L.J. 2653 Guyana, Smith, A.C. 3591 Boom, B & S.A. Mori 2152 Suriname, BW 5052 Guyana, FD 3361 Suriname, LBB 11967 Prevost, M.F. & D. Sabatier 2585 Suriname, BW 3475 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 4869 Guyana, Pinkus, A.S. 193 Suriname, Stahel, G. Wood herb. 113 Maguire, B. et al. 47096 Service Forestier 7547 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-862 Suriname, BBS 163 Cremers, G.A. 8129 Suriname, BW 5253 Suriname, Heyde, N.M. & J.C. Lindeman 240 Suriname, Stahel, G. 226 Guyana, Fanshawe, D.B. 1431 Riera, B. 444 Sabatier, D. 87 Sabatier, D. et al. 1356 Veillescazes, A. 469 Oldeman, R.A.A. 1893 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 4844 Suriname, BW 4632 Guyana, FD 4988 Suriname, Schulz, J.P. 7929 Suriname, BW 4510 Suriname, Oldenburger, F.H.F. et al. 1299 Granville, J.J. de (et al.) 4319 Suriname, BW 3828 Cremers, G.A. 7540 Suriname, LBB 6014 Wachenheim, H. 239 Lescure, J.P. 339 Skog, L. & C. Feuillet 7028 Suriname, LBB 1666 Sabatier, D. et al. 3163 Guyana, Jenman, G.S. 8345 Halle, F. 612 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-1126 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 3599 Suriname, BW 4652 Feuillet, C. 2267 Suriname, Irwin, H.S. et al. 55023 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 11173 Melinon, E. s.n. Oldeman, R.A.A. B-1243 Guyana, Fanshawe, D.B. 2262 Suriname, Kuyper, J. 79 Suriname, BW 3642 Suriname, BW 1615 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J. (et al.) 7995 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J. (et al.) 7792 Melinon, E. 242 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-3073 Guyana, Sandwith, N.Y. 1547 Suriname, BW 6984 Service Forestier 7541 Martin, J. s.n. Suriname, Lanjouw, J. & J.C. Lindeman 2806 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 3778 Jacquemin, H. 2013 Lescure, J.P. 471 Guyana, Maguire, B. & D.B. Fanshawe 22952 Feuillet, C. 3619 Guyana, Pipoly, J.J. (et al.) 9441 Oldeman, R.A.A. T-724 Wachenheim, H. 368 Suriname, BW 4146 Wachenheim, H. s.n. Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. & A.R.A. Gorts-van Rijn et al. 203 Boom, B & S.A. Mori 2453 Suriname, BW 1219 Granville, J.J. de (et al.) 9122 Mori, S.A. (et al.) 17978 Guyana, FD 5338 Sabatier, D. et al. 1940 Oldeman, R.A.A. 3270 Guyana, Maguire, B. & D.B. Fanshawe 32631 Guyana, Cruz, J.S. de Ia 3982 Gossin s.n. Suriname, LBB 5044 Sastre, C. 6137 Suriname, Heyde, N.M. 559 Riera, B. 435 Suriname, BBS 1108 Oldeman, R.A.A. T-581 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 5053 Service Forestier 1003 Oldeman, R.A.A. B-2313 Suriname, BBS 505 Guyana, FD 2760 Suriname, BW 6087 Suriname, Donselaar, J. van 1838 Suriname, LBB 9391 Service Forestier 215M Suriname, Schulz, J.P. 8589 Suriname, BW 2708 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 3580 Mori, S.A. (et al.) 18048 Sabatier, D. et al. 2160 Melinon, E. s.n. Suriname, BW 294 Suriname, LBB 12315 Suriname, Oldenburger, F.H.F. et al. 1208 Guyana, Gorts — van Rijn, A.R.A. & L. J.W. v.d. Wollenberg 401 Oldeman, R.A.A. 1538 Suriname, BW 4170 Suriname, LBB 9434 Suriname, Lindeman, J.C. 4875

Inflorescences

Inflorescences , , bracteate;40
40. 003

Leaves

Leaves alternate, simple, , pinnately veined, petiolate, exstipulate.41
41. 002

Timber properties

The taxa of three genera (Casimirella, Leretia and Pleurisanthes) are lianas, vines or small shrubs. Consequently, these taxa are of no commercial value for timber production.
The species of the other four genera are small to large trees. However, as individuals are rather scarce, these trees are only of limited local value with regard to their timbers.
Dendrobangia
TreeCanopy tree. Stem fluted. Diameter 30-50 cm.
Description of the woodNo clear distinction between heartwood and sapwood, light to pale brown. Texture medi- um. Grain straight to slightly interlocked. Lustre medium.
WeightSpecific gravity 700-830 kg per cubic metre (12%).
ShrinkageFrom green to ovendry: radial 5,6%, tangential 12,8%, volumetric 19,2%.
Mechanical propertiesCrushing strength: 720 kg/sq. cm Static bending: 1600 kg/sq. cm. Modules of elasticity: 135000 kg/sq. cm.
DurabilityResistance to fungi poor, resistance to termites variable.
Vemacular namesRode bast jakanta, Rode jakanta, Jakanta, Wayaballi, Wayaballikharemeru (SU).Taa- poutiki (FG); Pau de Cubiu (Brazil).
Discophora
TreeTree to 20 m tall
Description of the woodSapwood light brown. Texture fine. Grain straight.
WeightSpecific gravity 650 kg per cubic metre (12%)
Vernacular namesWitte bast jakanta, Witte jakanta (SU).
Emmotum
TreeCanopy tree, stem without butresses, deeply fluted. Diameter 40-50(-60) cm. Bole 14-18 m long.
Description of the woodHeartwood light brown, sapwood yellowish. Texture medium. Grain straight to slightly interlocked. Lustre medium.
WeightSpecific gravity 830-900 kg per cubic metre (12%).
UsesLocally as fuelwood.
Vernacular namesCandlewood, Manobodin (GU). Bois d'agouti (FG).
Poraqueiba
TreeTree up to 25 m tall.
Description of the woodHeartwood light brown, sapwood lighter. Texture fine to medium. Grain straight. Lus- tre medium to high.
WeightSpecific gravity 840-900 kg per cubic metre (12%).
Vernacular namesGewone jakanta, Marisiballi (SU). Gris-gris (FG).

Wood


Three genera, Casimirella, Leretia, and Pleurisanthes, are represented in this study by lianas only. The wood anatomical characteristics of these three taxa differ substantially from the others, and are not inclu- ded in the description of the family characteristics.
Vessels diffuse, solitary (and solitary and multiples in Discophora), perforations scalariform, but simple and scalariform in Discophora; intervascular pits scarce, usually transitional between scalariform and opposite, or opposite, and occasionally alternate.
Rays in two types, uni-biseriate (1000-3300 μm high) and multiseriate (5-10 cells wide), very high, over 5800-12000 μm, heterogeneous, composed of procumbent, square and upright cells, sometimes with many sheath cells, rhombic crystals common, sometimes absent. Parenchyma mainly apotracheal in short, wavy, tangential bands, one cell wide, and diffuse, also some scanty paratracheal cells. Rhombic crystals common in Dendrobangia.
Fibres non-septate, (very) thick-walled with a small lumen, with conspicuous bordered pits.
Special characteristics
Included phloem present in Casimirella, Leretia, and Pleurisanthes.