Guioa pleuropteris

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Guioa pleuropteris


Shrub to tree, up to 30 m high, dbh 5-60 cm (to 2 m); Branchlets especially hirsute (to sericeous) when young; Leaves (1-)2-5(-7)-jugate; Inflorescences axillary (to pseudoterminal), (unbranched to) branching basally and especially along the terete, usually brown hirsute, 0.5-21.6 cm long axis; Flowers 3-4.2 mm in diam., fragrant. Sepals 5, ovate, margin and less so outside pilose, margin with glands, inside (sub)glabrous, green to tinged reddish or whitish; Petals 5, (elliptic to) obovate, 1.3-3.5 by 0.7-2.2 mm, white; Stamens 8; Fruits with 1-3 well developed lobes, 1-1.9 by 1-2.5 cm, smooth to somewhat ribbed to somewhat rugose-ruminate, glabrous, red when fresh, reddish (to blackish) when dry; Seeds globose to obovoid, 5.5-9.7 by 5-8 mm;


Asia-Tropical: Borneo present; Cambodia (Cambodia present); Philippines (Philippines present); Sumatera (Sumatera present); Thailand (Thailand present); Vietnam (Vietnam present), Burma present, E coast of Malay Peninsula present, Hatien present, Kampot present, Poulo-Condor present
Burma, Cambodia (Kampot), Vietnam (Poulo-Condor, Hatien), Thailand, MalesiaE coast of Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines.


Wood is used for torches (Radlkofer, 1913); it is durable and elastic, but thin, therefore used in Indonesia as handles for axes and shafts of wagons and plows (). The roots are used medically in NE Piihang (Malaysia) in the form of a decoction against fever and stomach ache. The name pokok serawan burang probably refers to a medical use as ‘serawan’ = sprue (). Also used to exterminate intestinal worms.


1. Guioa pleuropteris is a rather varia-ble species, and the very character to which it owns i s name can be absent. The leaflets are usually elbovate with a sharply decurrent short apex (see leaflet a and fin , but if the latter is elongated the shape becomes more elliptic, as is found in forms from Sumatra, N Borneo and Philippines. The indumentum on the lower surface of the leaflets is usually dense, seldom sparse, usually velutinous to occasionally sericeous; the hairs are usually long, but can be short. The domatia are pockets, but an occasional pocket-like sac is also found.
The normal shape of the leaflets, found on the SE Asian mainland, most of Borneo and SE Philippines, is represented by the leaflets a and f in the distribution map (). The Philippines have several distinct forms, which cannot be separated as species. Two clines can be found in the Philippines (see arrows on map, ). One cline ranges from Palawan to Culion and Busuanga I. (Calami-an group). On Palawan the leaflets can be rather large and are usually densely velutinous on the lower surface. On the other two islands the size of the leaflets decreases dramatically, but they still remain very velutinous, this form has been described as ‘G. subapiculata (leaflet c). The forms on Palawan were described as G. pleuropteris (leaflet a, f) and the wingless specimens as ‘G. lasiothyrsa’ (leaflet d). The other cline is found from Borneo via Mindanao to Panay, Negros, Leyte, Samar to Luzon and finally to Mindoro. On Mindanao the situation is rather complex, the rather large-leaved form of Palawan is found, together with a somewhat smaller form of the ‘typical’ G. pleuropteris (leaflet a and f) and a third form which was described as 'G. aptera' and 'G. lasiothyrsa f. elmeri’ (leaflet e). This latter form is mainly found on Luzon, it has very asymmetrical and small leaflets, with often (few) sericeous hairs and sometimes (partly) sacs instead of pockets on the lower surface. All intermediates among these forms are found.
Morley & Flenley (in T.C. Whitmore: Bio-geograpical evolution of the Malay Archipelago, 1987, 50-59) show in a palaeogeographical reconstruction of the Sunda-Sahul region during the middle Pleistocene that a continuous landmass existed from N Borneo to Palawan and the Calami an group; this land mass is covered by one of the two clines; and another landmass existed from NE Borneo via Mindanao up to Luzon and Mindoro, the area occupied by the other cline. Probably the clines are the result of dispersal accompanied by phenological change.
In Kalimantan Timur (Borneo) some specimens resemble G. pterorhachis, but the midrib on the lower surface of the leaflets is convex instead of flat and hardly raised. Specimens from Sumatra were described as ‘G. forbesii' (leaflet b) because of the narrow, elliptic, rather than broad and obo-vate leaflets, which are densely velutinous below.
2. Merrill suggested that Sapindus guisian Blanco is synonymous with G. pleuropteris. This decision is incorrect, because of the large differences between the two. The full synonymy of Sapindus guisian and a discussion of the differences can be found in Welzen (1989) 263, note 3.
3. For the difference between the ‘G. lasiothyrsa’ form of G. pleuropteris and G. myriadenia see note 2 under the latter.


Radlk. 1879 – In: Sitzungsber. Math.-Phys. CI. Konigl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. Munchen: 520, 610
Radlk. 1913 – In: Bot. Jahrb.: 370
Radlk. 1913 – In: Philipp. J. Sc., Bot.: 446
Gagnep. 1950: Fl. Indo-Chine: 981: f. 124: 17-26
Radlk. 1913 – In: Philipp. J. Sc, Bot.: 446
Meijer 1967 – In: Bot. News Bull.: 74
Radlk. 1913 – In: Philipp. J. Sc, Bot.: 446
Salvosa 1963: Lex. Philipp. Pl.: 105
Radlk. 1933 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 1166
Radlk. 1933 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 1166
King 1896 – In: J. As. Soc. Beng.: 444
Merr. 1923 – In: Enum. Philipp. Flow. Pl.: 506
Merr. 1921: Enum. Born.: 361
Yap 1989 – In: Tree Fl. Malaya: 442
Fern.-Vill. 1883: Nov. App.: 349
Welzen 1989: p. 257. – In: Leiden Bot. Series: f. 109, 110
Corner 1939 – In: Gard. Bull. Str. Settl.: 45
Merr. 1923 – In: Enum. Philipp. Flow. Pl.: 508
Radlk. 1913 – In: Philipp. J. Sc, Bot.: 446
Stapf 1894 – In: Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot.: 119, 142
Radlk. 1933 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 1166
Ridley 1893 – In: Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot.: 289
Merr. 1923 – In: Enum. Philipp. Flow. Pl.: 508
Corner 1978: Gard. Bull. Sing.: 153
Merr. 1906: Philipp. J. Sc: 87
Radlk. 1904 – In: Perkins, Fragm. Fl. Philipp. 1: 63
Ridley 1922 – In: Fl. Malay Penins.: 505
Fern.-Vill. 1880: Nov. App.: 51
Hiern 1875 – In: Hook. f., Fl. Br. India 1: 677
Lecomte 1912: p. 1024. – In: Fl. Indo-Chine: f. 127: 1-6
Merr. 1923 – In: Enum. Philipp. Flow. Pl.: 506
Merr. 1906: Philipp. J. Sc: 87
Radlk. 1933 – In: Engl., Pflanzenr. 98: 1164
Martin 1971: Introd. Ethnobot. Cambodge: 90
Steen. 1931 – In: Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg.: 172, 187, 189
Craib 1926 – In: Fl. Siam. Enum.: 332
Ridley 1900 – In: J. Str. Br. Roy. As. Soc.: 66