Combretum fruticosum

Primary tabs

Combretum fruticosum

Content

<<<<Flowers>Calyx lobes>Apex>Hairs>Colour

golden1
1. 004-006-003-002-001

golden2
2. 004-004-003-002-001

<<<Flowers>Calyx lobes>Apex>Hairs

moderately to densely -lepidote3
3. 004-006-003-002

<<<Flowers>Calyx lobes>Apex>Shape

acute to subacute or sometimes obtuse and apiculate4
4. 004-006-003-001

<<<Flowers>Disk>Margins>Length

0.2-1 mm long5
5. 004-009-002-001

contiguously -lepidote6
6. 004-004-003-002

0.5-1.7 mm long7
7. 004-004-003-001

<<<Flowers>Petals>Apex>Hairs

glabrous, rarely sparsely lepidote outside8
8. 004-007-005-002

<<<Flowers>Petals>Apex>Shape

obtuse to acute, sometimes apiculate or shortly acuminate9
9. 004-007-005-001

<<<Flowers>Stamens>Filaments>Length

12.5-22 mm long10
10. 004-008-002-001

<<<Flowers>Upper hypanthium>Cupuliform region>Length

3-6(-7.5) mm long excl. calyx lobes11
11. 004-005-003-001

<<<Flowers>Upper hypanthium>Hairs>Colour

golden12
12. 004-005-004-001

<<<Flowers>Upper hypanthium>Infundibuliform region>Length

1.5-4.5(-5) mm long13
13. 004-005-002-001

<<<Fruits>Base>Pseudostipe>Length

0.1-0.55 cm long14
14. 005-006-002-001

<<<Fruits>Base>Wings>Width

0.4-0.9 cm wide15
15. 005-006-003-002

<<<Fruits>Base>Wings>Wing number

416
16. 005-006-003-001

<<<Leaves>Base>Hairs>Colour

yellowish- or golden17
17. 002-005-002-001

<<<Leaves>Petiole>Hairs>Colour

yellow- to golden18
18. 002-007-002-001

<<<Leaves>Veins>Secondary veins>Secondary vein pair number

(5-)6-9(-10) pairs19
19. 002-006-001-001

<<Flowers>Calyx lobes>Apex

apex , ;20
20. 004-006-003

<<Flowers>Calyx lobes>Growth form

erect21
21. 004-006-001

<<Flowers>Calyx lobes>Length

1.3-2.3(-3) mm long22
22. 004-006-002

<<Flowers>Disk>Hairs

densely pubescent at margin with straight or wavy hairs23
23. 004-009-001

<<Flowers>Disk>Margins

distinct free margin24
24. 004-009-002

<<Flowers>Lower hypanthium>Angle number

4-angled25
25. 004-004-002

<<Flowers>Lower hypanthium>Length

3.5-4.5(-6.5) mm long26
26. 004-004-001

pedicel-like region ,27
27. 004-004-003

<<Flowers>Petals>Apex

apex , without a basal claw, ;28
28. 004-007-005

<<Flowers>Petals>Dimensions

1.5-2.5(-3.2) x 0.8-1.5(-2) mm29
29. 004-007-003

<<Flowers>Petals>Petal number

4, very rarely absent30
30. 004-007-001

<<Flowers>Petals>Relative dimensions

usually shorter than calyx lobes but sometimes reaching about to their apex31
31. 004-007-004

<<Flowers>Petals>Shape

elliptic to suborbicular32
32. 004-007-002

<<Flowers>Stamens>Filaments

filaments ;33
33. 004-008-002

<<Flowers>Stamens>Stamen number

834
34. 004-008-001

<<Flowers>Style>Length

13-31.5 mm long35
35. 004-010-001

<<Flowers>Upper hypanthium>Cupuliform region

abruptly demarcated deeply cupuliform region above disk,36
36. 004-005-003

<<Flowers>Upper hypanthium>Dimensions

6-12.5(-13.5) x 4-6(-12.5) mm37
37. 004-005-001

<<Flowers>Upper hypanthium>Hairs

moderately to densely -lepidote, often shortly pubescent on inside even when hairless outside38
38. 004-005-004

<<Flowers>Upper hypanthium>Infundibuliform region

with narrowly infundibuliform region below disk,39
39. 004-005-002

<<Fruits>Apex>Shape

obtuse to rounded or retuse and usually distinctly apiculate40
40. 005-005-001

<<Fruits>Base>Pseudostipe

with very distinct narrow pseudostipe41
41. 005-006-002

<<Fruits>Base>Shape

rounded to truncate or slightly retuse42
42. 005-006-001

<<Fruits>Base>Wings

wings ,43
43. 005-006-003

<<Fruits>Hairs>Colour

golden44
44. 005-002-001

<<Inflorescences>Hairs>Colour

golden45
45. 003-003-001

<<Inflorescences>Racemes>Length

up to 25(-40) cm long46
46. 003-002-002

<<Inflorescences>Racemes>Position

terminal47
47. 003-002-001

<<Leaves>Apex>Shape

usually shortly to long acuminate but sometimes acute or obtuse48
48. 002-004-001

<<Leaves>Base>Hairs

often hairless or almost so but sometimes pubescent or even densely so below and sparsely so above, moderately to rather densely -lepidote below, sparsely or very sparsely so above49
49. 002-005-002

<<Leaves>Base>Shape

cuneate to rounded or subcordate50
50. 002-005-001

<<Leaves>Petiole>Hairs

glabrous to densely pubescent, contiguously to moderately -lepidote51
51. 002-007-002

<<Leaves>Petiole>Length

0.6-1.5 cm long52
52. 002-007-001

<<Leaves>Veins>Secondary veins

secondary veins ;53
53. 002-006-001

<<Perianth>Marginal cells>Marginal cell number

ca. 35-7054
54. 006-002-001

<Flowers>Calyx lobes

calyx lobes , ,55
55. 004-006

<Flowers>Disk

disk , ;56
56. 004-009

<Flowers>Hairs

varying fromglabrous to rufous-pubescent on outside57
57. 004-003

<Flowers>Length

10.5-17(-20) mm long58
58. 004-002

<Flowers>Lower hypanthium

lower hypanthium , , ,59
59. 004-004

<Flowers>Merosity

4-merous60
60. 004-001

<Flowers>Petals

petals , , , ,61
61. 004-007

<Flowers>Stamens

stamens , far exserted,62
62. 004-008

<Flowers>Style

style , exserted about as far as stamens.63
63. 004-010

<Flowers>Upper hypanthium

upper hypanthium , and , ;64
64. 004-005

<Fruits>Apex

apex ,65
65. 005-005

<Fruits>Base

base , .66
66. 005-006

<Fruits>Colour

often vinous-red67
67. 005-001

<Fruits>Dimensions

1.2-3 x 1-2.9 cm68
68. 005-003

<Fruits>Hairs

moderately to densely -lepidote especially on body69
69. 005-002

<Fruits>Shape

oblong-elliptic or elliptic to very broadly so70
70. 005-004

<Habit>Diameter

up to 18 cm diam.71
71. 001-002

<Habit>Growth form

scandent72
72. 001-003

<Habit>Hairs

‘combretaceous hairs’ (often very scarce) and peltate scales present.73
73. 001-005

<Habit>Height

1-5 m74
74. 001-004

<Habit>Length

to 30 m (usually much less)75
75. 001-001

<Inflorescences>Flowers

flowers borne densely around rhachis but in nature all swept up to vertical position from ± horizontal rhachis, with long exserted stamens forming 'bottle-brush' syndrome.76
76. 003-004

<Inflorescences>Hairs

glabrous to rather densely pubescent, densely to contiguously -lepidote77
77. 003-003

<Inflorescences>Length

4-15 cm long78
78. 003-001

<Inflorescences>Racemes

usually aggregated into racemes79
79. 003-002

<Leaves>Apex

apex ,80
80. 002-004

<Leaves>Base

base , ;81
81. 002-005

<Leaves>Dimensions

3.5-19 x 1.5-10 cm82
82. 002-003

<Leaves>Petiole

petiole , .83
83. 002-007

<Leaves>Shape

elliptic or sometimes elliptic-oblong to narrowly so84
84. 002-002

<Leaves>Texture

chartaceous or subcoriaceous85
85. 002-001

<Leaves>Veins

venation usually eucamptodromous-brochidodromous, sometimes eucamptodromous or brochidodromous,86
86. 002-006

<Perianth>Diameter

ca. 70-200 µm diam.87
87. 006-001

<Perianth>Marginal cells

marginal cells .88
88. 006-002

Common Name

English (Guyana): kadiamen

Description

Woody liana to 30 m (usually much less), stem up to 18 cm diam., in the absence of support a shrub with scandent or procumbent long branches or a shrub 1-5 m; ‘combretaceous hairs’ (often very scarce) and peltate scales present. Leaves opposite, chartaceous or subcoriaceous, elliptic or sometimes elliptic-oblong to narrowly so, 3.5-19 x 1.5-10 cm, apex usually shortly to long acuminate but sometimes acute or obtuse, base cuneate to rounded or subcordate, often hairless or almost so but sometimes pubescent or even densely so below and sparsely so above, moderately to rather densely yellowish- or golden-lepidote below, sparsely or very sparsely so above; venation usually eucamptodromous-brochidodromous, sometimes eucamptodromous or brochidodromous, secondary veins (5-)6-9(-10) pairs; petiole 0.6-1.5 cm long, glabrous to densely pubescent, contiguously to moderately yellow- to golden-lepidote. Inflorescence unbranched, stout, in opposite pairs in leaf-axils, 4-15 cm long, usually aggregated into terminal racemes up to 25(-40) cm long, at lower nodes in axils of normal leaves (usually fallen by fruiting), at upper nodes usually without or with much reduced subtending leaves, glabrous to rather densely pubescent, densely to contiguously golden-lepidote; flowers borne densely around rhachis but in nature all swept up to vertical position from ± horizontal rhachis, with long exserted stamens forming 'bottle-brush' syndrome. Flowers 4-merous, variable in size and shape, 10.5-17(-20) mm long, varying fromglabrous to rufous-pubescent on outside; lower hypanthium 3.5-4.5(-6.5) mm long, 4-angled, pedicel-like region 0.5-1.7 mm long, contiguously golden-lepidote,upper hypanthium 6-12.5(-13.5) x 4-6(-12.5) mm, with narrowly infundibuliform region below disk, 1.5-4.5(-5) mm long and abruptly demarcated deeply cupuliform region above disk, 3-6(-7.5) mm long excl. calyx lobes, moderately to densely golden-lepidote, often shortly pubescent on inside even when hairless outside; calyx lobes erect, 1.3-2.3(-3) mm long, apex acute to subacute or sometimes obtuse and apiculate, moderately to densely golden-lepidote; petals 4, very rarely absent, elliptic to suborbicular, 1.5-2.5(-3.2) x 0.8-1.5(-2) mm, usually shorter than calyx lobes but sometimes reaching about to their apex, apex obtuse to acute, sometimes apiculate or shortly acuminate, without a basal claw, glabrous, rarely sparsely lepidote outside; stamens 8, far exserted, filaments 12.5-22 mm long; disk densely pubescent at margin with straight or wavy hairs, distinct free margin 0.2-1 mm long; style 13-31.5 mm long, exserted about as far as stamens. Fruit often vinous-red, moderately to densely golden-lepidote especially on body, 1.2-3 x 1-2.9 cm, oblong-elliptic or elliptic to very broadly so, apex obtuse to rounded or retuse and usually distinctly apiculate, base rounded to truncate or slightly retusewith very distinct narrow pseudostipe 0.1-0.55 cm long, wings 4, 0.4-0.9 cm wide. Scales ca. 70-200 µm diam., marginal cells ca. 35-70.

Distribution

America present, Argentina present, French Guiana present, Guianas present, Guyana present, Southern America: Uruguay (Uruguay present), Suriname present, Trinidad present, central and lower Amazon river-basin present, from E coast to almost the W coast of S America present, from about 21° N in western Mexico present
Most widespread species of the family in America, occurring from E coast to almost the W coast of S America, and from about 21° N in western Mexico to about 33° S in Argentina and Uruguay, absent in the West Indies apart from Trinidad; a typical forest liana, occupying all sorts of forest: evergreen or deciduous, tall or short, upland or lowland, dry or humid, on slopes or by rivers or lakes or in marshes, virgin, disturbed or secondary, and cut or burned, however, only sparsely scattered in very humid central and lower Amazon river-basin, and notably absent from French Guiana, Suriname and adjacent Guyana, where C. rohrii and C. rotundifolium are more characteristic; about 10 specimens from the Guianas (GU: 10).

Flowers

Flowers , variable in size and shape, , ;89
89. 004

Fruits

Fruit , , , ,90
90. 005

Habit

Woody liana , stem , in the absence of support a shrub with or procumbent long branches or a shrub ;91
91. 001

Individuals Association

Guyana, Kanuku Mts., Rupununi R., Bush Mouth near Witaru Falls, Jansen-Jacobs et al. 149 Guyana, Mazaruni R., Takutu Cr. to Puruni R., Fanshawe 4799

Inflorescences

Inflorescence unbranched, stout, in opposite pairs in leaf-axils, , , at lower nodes in axils of normal leaves (usually fallen by fruiting), at upper nodes usually without or with much reduced subtending leaves, ;92
92. 003

Leaves

Leaves opposite, , , ,93
93. 002

Perianth

Scales ,94
94. 006

Phenology

Flowering .